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Sunday, July 15, 2012

Instructional Design Models and Motivational Design and Dissociative Identity Disorder Model Course Project

Garvey, EDU651 2.1

How do you define learning?  Do you feel that learning is an individual endeavor, or is it a socio-cultural endeavor?  Please provide examples to support your definition.

            The most relevant definitions we read seemed to be from Driscoll who states one learning definition “is a persisting change in human performance or performance potential,” and he writes a second definition of learning is based in psychology “as a consequence of “learner’s experiences and interactions with the world” (2005, p. 9 as cited in Reiser & Dempsey, 2009 p. 36).  The second definition of learning was considered an individual process “an increased ability to perform in a particular way” (p. 36).  I leaned toward the educational model rather than the psychological one in that “human performance” stood more strongly than “interactions with the world.”  It seemed that everything is done “in this world,” so that element of the sentence became unnecessary.  I thought the first statement was more active in producing “change” than the term “interaction” which might be fairly docile or inactive.  And, I thought the first definition of learning included volition in acknowledging difference between an individual’s potential, and capacity.

            I believe that learning is more an individual endeavor in that although an individual is always going to be in a socio-cultural environment, she will always be learning from information initiated through her senses, mental capacity, perception, etc.  For example, I was a cross-country skier when I was in high school and we made it to the State finals as a team.  We trained as a team, socialized as a team, conquered our fears as a team, but when it came to performance, I skied by myself, even though the scores added to the team’s scores.  I could take in all the team’s affect, but it was my personal interpretation, development and motivation that allowed me to learn and exceed at the sport.

Compare characteristics of a novice vs. expert on a learning activity (relative to our topic).  Assuming our learner is a novice how would we like her to perform at the end of her activity?

Characteristics of a novice compared very closely with characteristics of an expert.  The novice might have less stored information, less discipline, and might be perhaps “smarter,” than the expert who might be “wiser.”  Otherwise, they interact as both learner and instructor mutually as givers of ideas, curious and creative, engaged, and as to coming to new conclusions.  Mr. Nagasaki in the movie Karate Kid is a perfect example of someone I see in the learning role of a wise elder.  In a sense, Daniel taught his teacher how to teach, or presented problem-solving opportunities to Mr. Nagasaki, who could then give Daniel in return framed opportunities to learn and grow (Macchi, Marita, & Shue, 1984).  Scardamahlia & Bereiter stated that a “knowledge forum has the capability now of linking experts in the field with students in the classroom in mutually constituted knowledge-building efforts” (1996b as cited in Reiser & Dempsey, 2009, p. 36.

In my example of a learning activity that I could give one of my learners, I would suggest that a novice to my project would be an adult and most likely female between the ages of 20-55 years of age, curious and technically savvy enough to be drawn to an online course on multiplicity.  She would be either a multiple or a singleton.  At the end of the activity, we would like them to have a desire to continue changing and wanting to learn more.  She would have performed several tasks that allowed her to expand her knowledge, skills and abilities.  Part of this would be as our project task might ask general learner to meet multiples in blogs and Twitter, but as well, we are asking the learner to show presentation skills that can be assessed, so she will also have learned new technology techniques.  Reiser & Dempsey state (2009, p. 39) that “students continually improve their ideas as they consult others’ work, and they collectively determine next steps based on gaps in their knowledge.”

List and discuss characteristics that we feel are essential to an effective learning environment.

We found an abundance of good ideas as to effective learning in the discussion on situated learning which Kirshner & Whitson who state learning is “a work in progress.”  Situated learning relies on characteristics determined by social and cultural environments.  In studying my own socio-culture of multiples, we believe learners could learn from our environment of blogs, Twitter and a web-base that includes slides, videos, and podcasts.  It would be a joint venture that incorporated both the multiple and singleton cultures.  Lemke states that knowledge is gained in “meaningful actions, actions that have relations of meaning to one another in terms of some cultural setting” (1997, p. 43 as cited in Reiser & Dempsey, 2009, p 38). As long as the learner and instructor (multiples in this case) are each open to change, they can both learn to work on issues that need to be resolved to further comprehend nuances of culture and they would each gain technological competency through their efforts.

Select a technology advance, or tool (i.e. blogs, interactive video, iPods, podcasts, etc.) and describe how it might improve learners learning.

I would consider many technologies in improving learners’ learning.  I would start the session with learner’s meeting at a web site where they would be introduced to each other and then coordinated into teams of various numbers that would contain at least one multiple and one singleton.  I would encourage them to interact through phone, email, text messaging, instant message, camera, Google+, Skype, or other.  I would give them a problem to solve in defining the term dissociative identity disorder (Dell & O’Neil, 2009).  The term would be broken down into elements and like a treasure hunt; they would have to develop a means of conceptualizing the definition and description of “Dissociative Identity Disorder” (DID), and they would discuss through conversation and in meeting other multiples through blogs (Olson, 2012) and Twitter (Garvey, 2012).  I would have them collect items from their “dig” such as might occur through a portfolio of writing, video, slides, or podcast that would be posted to the website on a linked page just for them.  It would be permanently available for referral at any time by them, or future peers.  They would be introduced as well to the Microsoft (2012) and Adobe Creative Cloud tools (which would be a $29 per month) (Adobe, 2012).  It would give them recognition and a sense of pride to post their work as a collective piece of new diversification of the two cultures.  It would improve their learning because they would be learning about each other from the multiples’ worlds’ of dysfunction and function and through trials and success of the disability/ability.  The multiple would benefit in learning about some of her psychological barriers, and in learning to trust someone new to the culture.  Each culture would also learn teambuilding, collaborating, communication and technology advancements. 


Adobe.  (2012).  Products:  Adobe creative cloud.  Retrieved from

Dell, P. F. & O’Neil, J. A. (2009).  Dissociation and the dissociative disorders:  DSM-V and beyond.  NY: Routledge.

Garvey, A. M. (2012).  Twitter @ Aynetal3:  Lists:  Multiples like me.  Retrieved from!/Aynetal3/multiples-like-me

Macchi, R. Morita, N. & Shue, E. (1984). The karate kid [movie].  Retrieved from

Microsoft.  (2012).  Microsoft student store.  Retrieved from

Olson, S. E. (2012).  Dissociation blog showcase:  Third of a lifetime.  Retrieved from

Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2012).  Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (3rd ed.).  Boston, MA:  Pearson Education, Inc.


1 definition and description

1.1 Across the developmental spectrum, dissociative processes may manifest as disturbances of affect regulation (example, depression, mood swings, feelings of isolation), identity disruptions (example, splitting, fragmentation), auto-hypnotic phenomena (example, trances, time distortions, psychogenic numbing), memory dysfunction (example, psychogenic amnesia, fugue), revivification of traumatic experience (example flashbacks, hallucinations), and behavioral disturbance (example, inattention, poor impulse control, self harm, (Hornstein and Putnam, 1992 as cited in disassociation and the dissociative disorders DSM – V and beyond, Paul Dell and John O'Neil, 2009).

1.1.1 Developmental psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with psychological phenomenon of all kinds in infants, children, adolescents, adults, and old people, and all the psychological changes that occur across the lifespan. It includes research into the development of perception, cognition, language skills, moral attitudes, and social relationships (dictionary of psychology, Coleman, 2001).

dissociative processes or disassociation is partial or total disconnection between memories of the past, awareness of identity and of immediate sensations, and control of bodily movements, often resulting from traumatic experiences, intolerable problems, or disturbed relationships (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).

Deficient - more specifically, any deficiency in functioning, owing to a disorder or impairment (dictionary of psychology, Coleman, 2001).

affect is emotion or subjectively experience feelings, such as happiness, sadness, fear, or anger (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).

Depression is a mood, state of sadness, gloom, and pessimistic ideation, with loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities, accomplice insomnia, hypersomnia, asthenia, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, diminished ability to think or concentrate, or reoccurring thoughts of death or suicide (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001)..

mood swings – moods are temporary, but relatively sustained and pervasive affective state often contrasted psychology and psychiatry with the more specific and short-term emotion such as depression, dysphoric mood, elevated mood, euthymic mood, expansive mood, or irritable  mood (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).

feelings of isolation feeling is an emotional states and isolation is reaction about being isolated, or the action of isolating, or setting apart from others, or in quarantine (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012).

regulation is something that controls or brings to order, method, or uniformity one's self object which is a subjective experience of another person who sustains oneself within a social relationship evoking and reinforcing one's sense of self would the element where object refers to an instinctual object not to and in not inanimate thing (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012).

identity disruption

splitting is the most primitive of all defense mechanisms in which instinctual objects that evoke ambivalence and therefore anxiety are dealt with by compartmentalizing positive and negative emotions, leading to image of self and others that are not integrated. Splitting plays a central role in the theory of defensive techniques proposed by Ronald Fairburn, 1964 (dictionary of psychology, Coleman, 2001).

fragmentation is the state of fragments, or fragmenting one's identity as if parts, broken off, detached, or incomplete (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012).

Auto-hypnotic phenomena is anything that can be perceived or observed and that which is self-induced (dictionary of psychology, Coleman, 2001).

trance is an altered state of consciousness shown by narrowing of awareness of events in the immediate surroundings, a suspension of the sense of personal identity, and the menu Asian in the range of motor activity and speech(dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).

time distortions is to twist out of the true meaning or proportion, or to twist out of a natural, normal or original shape or condition: a measure for measurable period during which an action, process, or condition exists or continues: or a non-spatial continuum that is measured in terms of revenge which succeed one another from past to present to future: the pointer. When something occurs  (Merriam Webster online dictionary, 2012).

psychogenic numbing is being devoid of emotion originating in the mind or in mental or emotional conflict (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012).

memory dysfunction is impaired or abnormal functioning (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012) parentheses with the psychological function of preserving information involving the processes of encoding, storage, coding and retrieval. Human memory consists of a series of interconnected systems serving different functions, one of the most basic divisions being in too declarative memory for factual information about the world and procedural memory for information about how to carry out sequences of operation; another basic division being between long-term memory for information stored for more than a few seconds, short term memory for temporary storage of information for briefer periods, and sensory memory (including the iconic store) for the very brief storage of visual and possibly other sensory information; and the third basic division being into the episodic memory for events and experiences and semantic memory for information about the world, although perceptual memory may not fall into either category. As well, the definition states that the power of the chemical senses to reawaken distant memories is discussed under reintegration (dictionary of psychology, Coleman, 2001).

psychogenic amnesia loss of memory, the most common forms generally affecting declarative memory rather than procedural memory (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001) originating in the mind or in mental or emotional conflict (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012).

dissociative fugue is a dissociative disorder characterized by sudden unexpected travel away from home, amnesia for some or all of the past, confusion about personal identity or occasionally the assumption of a new identity. It is not diagnosed if it caused by drugs or general medical condition (dictionary of psychology, Coleman, 2001).

revivification of traumatic experience is to give new life to a direct observation of or participation in events as basis of knowledge: the factor state of having been affected by her gain knowledge through direct observation or participation: or practical knowledge, skill and practice derived from direct observation or participation in events or in a particular activity which is(dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).in a physical injury or wound, or in a powerful psychological shock that has damaging effects (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012 and (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).

flashbacks are a sudden transition to an earlier episode in the narrative: a re-occurrence of a memory, or the experience of reliving an episode from the past (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).

hallucinations are a perceptual experiences similar to a true perception, but not resulting from stimulation of a sense organ, generally occurring under a hallucinogen, or hypnosis or as a symptom of schizophrenia or neurological disorder, but excluding dreams occurring while sleep, hypnagogic images experience while falling asleep, and hypnopompic images experience while awakening: to be distinguished it in careful usage from an illusion, in which a real object or event, is misperceived or misinterpreted (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).

behavioral disturbance is the act of interfering or interrupting: to alter the position or arrangement of: to destroy the tranquility or composure of the physical activity of an organism, including overt bodily movements and internal glandular and other physiological processes, constituting the sum total of the organisms physical responses to its environment space (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012) and (dictionary of psychology, Coleman, 2001).

inattention is to interfere with  or interrupt: to alter the position or arrangement of: , or to destroy the tranquility or composure of (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012).

poor impulse control is a class of mental disorders characterized by failure to resist impulses, drives, or temptations to behave in ways that are damaging to self or others which are inferior in quality or value (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).

self harm is physical or mental damage to one's self object which is a subjective experience of another person who sustains oneself within a social relationship evoking and reinforcing one's sense of self where the element of object refers to an instinctual object not to and in not inanimate thing (Merriam-Webster online dictionary, 2012) and (dictionary of psychology,  Coleman, 2001).


Coleman.  (2001). Dictionary of psychology.  Oxford:  The Oxford Press

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.  (2012).  Retrieved from

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